Born In The U.S.A. - Studio Sessions


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Commercially Released: June 4, 1984
Label: Columbia
Produced by Bruce Springsteen, Jon Landau, Steven Van Zandt and Chuck Plotkin
Recorded by Toby Scott, Mike Batlan, Neil Dorfsman and Bill Scheniman, assisted by John Davenport, Jeff Hendrickson, Bruce Lampcov,
 Billy Straus and Zoë Yanakas at The Power Station, The Hit Factory and Thrill Hill Recording (January 1982 - March 1984)
Mixed by Bob Clearmountain
Mastered by Bob Ludwig
Design by Andrea Klein
Photography by Annie Leibovitz

Overview

The Born In The U.S.A. sessions spanned a two year period and produced the largest quantity of completed song recordings of any session of Bruce’s career. The sessions can be broken down into four distinct phases:

Phase One - January thru May 1982, featuring The E Street Band (with Van Zandt)
Phase Two - January thru late April 1983, featuring Springsteen alone on multiple instruments
Phase Three - May thru June 1983, featuring The E Street Band (little or no Van Zandt)
Phase Four - September 1983 thru February 1984, featuring The E Street Band (no Van Zandt)

According to comments by Max Weinberg, nearly eighty songs were recorded over the course of the entire Born In The U.S.A. sessions. Co-producer Chuck Plotkin has mentioned the number seventy. Springsteen also once stated seventy. In evaluating seventy to eighty it is not clear if these numbers include the thirteen songs from the solo Nebraska sessions that have never surfaced in any form with an E Street Band or multi-instrument backing (i.e., the ten songs issued on the Nebraska album, plus "The Big Payback", "Losin’ Kind" and "Child Bride"). Thanks to information from Sony's studio logs, we now have a far better understanding of the sheer scale of Springsteen's output at this time, as well as the layout of the sessions. Perhaps the most significant information gleaned from the logs is the final confirmation that the majority of Nebraska songs *were* recorded with the band at The Power Station, as well as songs like "Robert Ford" and "Fade To Black" which were demoed in 1981 alongside those Nebraska tracks.

Currently, thirty-two different songs have been officially released from the Born In The U.S.A. sessions, including those originally recorded for but not included on Nebraska. There are thirteen other songs that are circulating unofficially as complete takes in very good sound quality. Eight songs from Nebraska ("Atlantic City", "Johnny 99", "Used Cars", "Nebraska", "Open All Night", "Mansion On The Hill", "Highway Patrolman" and "Reason To Believe") are known to have been recorded with the band, plus another thirty-three songs that may have been worked to completion. Altogether these total eighty-six songs, fairly consistent with Weinberg, Plotkin and Springsteen's recollections.

The Born In The U.S.A. sessions began in mid-January 1982 as part of Bruce and The E Street Band’s work at The Hit Factory on the Gary US Bonds' On The Line album. The Born In The U.S.A. sessions merely flowed on from the Bonds sessions. However Springsteen alternated his own sessions between The Power Station and the nearby Hit Factory over the course of the next few months.

It appears Springsteen had what might best be described as three different batches of songs ready to record in January and February 1982 – firstly the group of stark story songs he recorded as solo demos in early January (the Nebraska material), secondly a group of soul-influenced songs he brought along for possible use on the US Bonds' album and… thirdly, a group of rock-orientated songs. However Springsteen was not satisfied with the way many of the Nebraska demo songs sounded with E Street Band backing and by early April he began actively exploring the possibility of releasing some of these solo demos as a solo album. The decision in May to proceed with the solo album appears to have put the band sessions on hold – for what turned out to be nearly a year.

Recording Phases

Phase One Sessions (including the so-called 'Electric Nebraska')

Recorded at The Power Station (New York) and The Hit Factory (New York), mid January 1982 to late May 1982
Recording Engineer: Toby Scott

During May 1982, Springsteen made a decision to release ten of the seventeen songs from his January 1982 solo demo tape as his next official album – quite a radical decision for its time. The E Street Band sessions came to a halt and Springsteen focused his attention for the next couple of months on overseeing final preparations of Nebraska. However, mixing of the band material continued through June, alongside the Nebraska tracks. In fact, Springsteen even considered putting both albums out as a double record. "I had these two extremely different recording experiences going," he told Mark Hagen in an interview for Mojo magazine published in January 1999. "I was going to put them out at the same time as a double record. I didn't know what to do." An album sequence for the band album was compiled, as follows:

Possible Album Tracks
Side One Side Two
BORN IN THE U.S.A. WORKING ON THE HIGHWAY
MURDER INCORPORATED DARLINGTON COUNTY
DOWNBOUND TRAIN FRANKIE
DOWN, DOWN, DOWN (a.k.a. I'm Goin' Down) I'M ON FIRE
GLORY DAYS THIS HARD LAND
MY LOVE WILL NOT LET YOU DOWN

The May-July 1982 period also saw the effective departure of Steve Van Zandt as a member of The E Street Band (although a formal announcement wasn't made until May 1984). Van Zandt put together his band (The Disciples Of Soul) in June 1982 and the group made its live debut in July. At the same time, he changed his stage name from “Miami Steve” to “Little Steven” to reflect his change of status to a full-time solo artist. He also spent the summer putting the finishing touches on a debut solo album that he had largely completed in the fall of 1981. Van Zandt began a U.S.A./European tour with The Disciples Of Soul that would continue for most of the next twelve months. Van Zandt’s involvement with the remainder of the Born In The U.S.A. sessions would be minor.

Following his decision to release Nebraska and stop recording with the band, Springsteen spent the summer of 1982 in New Jersey making numerous guest appearances, that became affectionately known as his '1982 Jersey Shore Bar Tour'. However, that came to an end in early October, soon after the release of Nebraska. Springsteen spent nearly all of the next five months (November 1982-March 1983) in Los Angeles, returning to New Jersey only for about two weeks during this period to attend Van Zandt’s wedding (December 31) and the closing night party for Clarence’s short-lived club Big Man’s West (January 8). During November-December 1982 Bruce had Mike Batlan install a home recording studio at his house in Los Angeles. Springsteen recorded more than an album's worth of songs over the early months of 1983, playing all the instruments himself (except for a drum machine). These became the second phase of the Born In The U.S.A. sessions.

Phase Two Sessions

Recorded at Thrill Hill Recording, Hollywood Hills (Springsteen’s Los Angeles home studio), mid-January to late April 1983
Recording Engineer: Mike Batlan

Springsteen has mentioned that at one point in early 1983 he gave consideration to releasing the best of these above-mentioned Los Angeles home studio recordings as a thematic follow-up to the Nebraska album. This album concept is not known to have ever been given a working title because Springsteen quickly abandoned the concept. Although none of these Los Angeles recordings ultimately ended up on the album, two of them (“Shut Out The Light” and “Johnny Bye Bye”) were issued as b-sides in 1984-5. Although still unreleased “The Klansman”, “Unsatisfied Heart” and “Richfield Whistle” are among Bruce's most compelling. Soon after abandoning the idea of the above-mentioned album brief consideration was given to combining tracks from both the Phase One and Phase Two – with a tentative album title of “Murder Incorporated”. A document exists from around March 1983 revealing Springsteen's then-selections for the so-called “Murder Incorporated” album, as well his choices for b-sides. This tracklisting appears to have been produced prior to the undertaking of the Phase Three Sessions. Springsteen's selections (all of which had been recorded at this stage) were as follows:

Possible Album Tracks Possible Single B-Sides
BORN IN THE U.S.A. SUGARLAND
MURDER INCORPORATED FOLLOW THAT DREAM
DOWNBOUND TRAIN DON'T BACK DOWN
MY LOVE WILL NOT LET YOU DOWN ONE LOVE
GLORY DAYS LITTLE GIRL (LIKE YOU)
THIS HARD LAND
JOHNNY BYE BYE
FRANKIE
I'M GOIN DOWN
WORKING ON THE HIGHWAY
I'M ON FIRE

Springsteen didn't settle for the above-mentioned song line-up but instead opted for more sessions. Bruce began a new round of recording with The E Street Band at The Hit Factory in New York in May 1983. It appears to have been their first studio get-together in nearly a year. Steve Van Zandt, who was busy at the time recording his second solo album and touring with his own group, doesn't seem to have been present during much of these May-June 1983 E Street Band sessions.

Phase Three Sessions

Recorded at The Hit Factory (New York City), May thru June 1983
Recording Engineer: Toby Scott

Following the end of the Phase Three sessions in June 1983 major mixing sessions took place. Some in CBS were talking of a possible of a pre-Christmas release. With three sessions phases now complete there was certainly no shortage of outstanding material to pick from. On July 26-27 Springsteen compiled a twelve-song album sequence comprised of three songs carried over from the 1982 sequence, four from the early 1983 sessions and five from the recent E Street Band sessions. The July 1983 album sequence reads as follows:

Possible Album Tracks
Side One Side Two
BORN IN THE U.S.A. SUGARLAND
CYNTHIA MY LOVE WILL NOT LET YOU DOWN
NONE BUT THE BRAVE FOLLOW THAT DREAM
DROP ON DOWN AND COVER ME MY HOMETOWN
SHUT OUT THE LIGHT GLORY DAYS
JOHNNY BYE BYE JANEY, DON'T YOU LOSE HEART

However, as had been in the case in March, Bruce decided to hold off and continue writing more songs. He felt that his selection lacked cohesion, and the sound quality of the garage tracks jarred in comparison to the studio tracks. This resulted in yet another final phase of scattered studio sessions from autumn 1983 into the early months of 1984. Due to extremely tight security at the time little is known about this final session period and precious little unofficial audio has ever leaked out.

All too aware that Springsteen was having difficulties making the final selection, Jon Landau took the unique step of creating his own ideal album, based on what had been recorded to date. As can be seen from the above track list, Bruce had all but abandoned what Landau felt were his best songs, those recorded in the early sessions in May 1982. Landau's selection covered eleven songs with the May 1982 songs forming the backbone; "Born In The U.S.A.", "I'm Goin' Down", "Cover Me", "My Hometown" and "Bobby Jean" on side one, with "My Love Will Not Let You Down", "Follow That Dream", "Glory Days", "Protection", "Janey, Don't You Lose Heart" and "I'm On Fire" on the flip-side.

Phase Four Sessions (Final Born In the U.S.A. sessions)

Recorded at The Hit Factory (New York City), September 1983 thru February 1984
Recording Engineer: Toby Scott

Suffering from writer's block, Bruce finally listened to Jon Landau, and figured out his sequence. "…in the end, I circled back to my original group of songs, he wrote in Born To Run, "there I found a naturalism and aliveness that couldn't be argued with. They weren't exactly what I'd been looking for, but they were what I had."

Unfortunately, precious little studio material has leaked out from this period, but it did produce perhaps Springsteen's best known song, "Dancing In The Dark", the last track recorded in February 1984. In the months before that he was still writing new material, even after all this time in the studio, with curious titles like "Refrigerator Blues", "Ida Rose (No One Knows)" and "Swoop Man" all of which were cut at the Hit Factory but remain in the vaults.

Bruce said in Born To Run, "My Born in the USA songs were direct and fun and stealthily carried the undercurrents of Nebraska. With my record greatly enhanced by the explosiveness of Bob Clearmountain’s mixes, I was ready for my close-up. Onstage, this music swept over my audience with joyous abandon. We had hit after hit and in 1985, along with Madonna, Prince, Michael Jackson and the stars of disco, I was a bona fide mainstream radio superstar".

Released

# Song Title Running Time Release
1. BORN IN THE U.S.A. 4:36 BITUSA / 1984 single
2. COVER ME 3:22 BITUSA / 1984 single
3. DARLINGTON COUNTY 4:44 BITUSA
4. WORKING ON THE HIGHWAY 3:10 BITUSA
5. DOWNBOUND TRAIN 3:29 BITUSA
6. I'M ON FIRE 2:32 BITUSA / 1985 single
7. NO SURRENDER 3:57 BITUSA
8. BOBBY JEAN 3:41 BITUSA
9. I'M GOIN' DOWN 3:25 BITUSA / 1985 single
10. GLORY DAYS 4:11 BITUSA / 1985 single
11. DANCING IN THE DARK 3:57 BITUSA / 1984 single
12. MY HOMETOWN 4:27 BITUSA / 1985 single

Total Running Time: 46:56

Visit our release-pages for additional information.

Additional Recordings

Details

VIETNAM - V1 3:15 FFOD / HNWB / MT2
VIETNAM BLUES - V2 2:00 FFOD / HNWB / MT2
BORN IN THE U.S.A. BLUES - V3 2:22 FFOD / HNWB / MT2
BORN IN THE U.S.A. - V4 0:30 FFOD / HNWB
BORN IN THE U.S.A. - V5 4:45 FFOD / HNWB
BORN IN THE U.S.A. - V6 3:10 FFOD / HNWB
BORN IN THE U.S.A. - V7 2:55 FFOD / HNWB
BORN IN THE U.S.A. - V8 4:00 FFOD / HNWB
BORN IN THE U.S.A. - V9a take 1 3:06 LM-1 / HNWB
BORN IN THE U.S.A. - V9b take 1 mix 2 3:06 TRACKS
BORN IN THE U.S.A. - V10 take 2 8:09 THLBB / UH / GS / BUERM / MI
BORN IN THE U.S.A. - V11a take 4 mix 1 4:34 BITUSA / ESSENTIAL / GREATEST / CHAPTER
BORN IN THE U.S.A. - V11b take 4 mix 2 4:52 LM-19 / THLBP
BORN IN THE U.S.A. - V12 uncirculating
BORN IN THE U.S.A. - V13 take 9 uncirculating
BORN IN THE U.S.A. - V14a freedom mix 7:20 1984 EP
BORN IN THE U.S.A. - V14b radio mix 6:10 1984 EP
BORN IN THE U.S.A. - V14c dub mix 7:36 1984 EP

“I’m a long gone daddy I don’t need you anyhow. ”
—Hank Williams 1948

Note: Writing and recording began at Springsteen's home in Colts Neck, New Jersey during October 1981 as the demo, "Vietnam" or "Vietnam Blues". V3 is now titled "Born In the U.S.A. Blues", re-titled after Jon Landau sent Springsteen a Paul Schrader script called "Born In the U.S.A.". V4 is a taken from November 1981, with the lyrics "Born baby in the USA, I believe in the American way". V5 thru V8 were recorded in December, and V9 was recorded on the portastudio Mike Batlan had setup on January 3, 1982. Bruce included it on the "Nebraska demos" cassette tape he sent to Jon Landau. In his notes to Landau, Bruce described the song as a "little ditty. should be done very hard rockin". A copy leaked to bootleggers from Batlan, then V9b was mixed in 1997 and officially released on Tracks in 1998. V10 and V11 were recorded in just four takes (two complete), at The Power Station with the E Street Band, on April 27, 1982. V10 is the 8 minute+ extended jam ending, where Max Weinberg takes his shot at the title, as Bruce would say. V11a (take 4) became the first song on side one of the album, "Born In the USA". V11b continues where 11a fades out, with an extended synthesizer ending; it was leaked out of the sessions, and released unofficially on the bootleg, 'This Hard Land'. V12 represents takes 5-8 on April 28, 1982, and V13 is take 9 on May 3, 1982. V14a thru V14c are dance remixes of V11, undertaken by Arthur Baker, and recorded at Shakedown Studio in New York City in September 1984. Toby Scott was the recording engineer for the remixes (which include additional vocals by The Latin Rascals), which were first released in December 1984.

DOWNBOUND TRAIN - V1 1:11 FFOD / HNWB
DOWNBOUND TRAIN - V2 0.34 LM-10
DOWNBOUND TRAIN - V3 take 3 2:22 LM-1 / HNWB / MT2 / ESRR
DOWNBOUND TRAIN - V4a 3:17 THLRR / BUERM / TDB
DOWNBOUND TRAIN - V4b 3:14 LM-19 / GS
DOWNBOUND TRAIN - V4c 3:29 BITUSA
DOWNBOUND TRAIN - V5 uncirculating
DOWNBOUND TRAIN - V6 uncirculating
DOWNBOUND TRAIN - V7 uncirculating
DOWNBOUND TRAIN - V8 uncirculating
DOWNBOUND TRAIN - V9 uncirculating

Note: V1-V2 were recorded at Springsteen's home in Colts Neck, NJ in late 1981, brief demos which include the closing lines of both the Nebraska take and the final Born In The USA album version. V2 is just harmonies, with no lyrical content. V3 is a full, acoustic run through of the song on January 3, 1982, with the patented Nebraska ending. Described by Springsteen in his notes to Jon Landau as an "uptempo rocker for full effect / needs band / could be exciting". As such V4-V5 were later recorded with the E Street Band at The Power Station, on April 27-28 during the 'Electric Nebraska' sessions. Both V4a and V4b feature Springsteen's vocal count-in, a small lyrical variation in the first verse left over from the acoustic demo ("laid off down at the auto yard", rather than "lumber yard"), some vocal howls in the mid-section, more up-front acoustic guitar over the final verse, and a shorter fade-out. The acoustic guitar is perhaps slightly lower in the V4b mix. Additional sessions were held on May 3 V6 and May 5-6, V7-V8. Bruce returned to "Downbound Train" on V9 February 3, 1983 at Thrill Hill West, his Hollywood Hills garage studio.

COVER ME - V1 3:15 THLBB
COVER ME - V2a 3:36 1984AC / RTT
COVER ME - V2b 3:28 BITUSA
COVER ME - V3 uncirculating
COVER ME - V4 uncirculating
COVER ME (Undercover Mix) - V5a 6:11 1984 EP
COVER ME (Radio) - V5b 3:46 1984 EP
COVER ME (Dub I) - V5c 4:11 1984 EP
COVER ME (Dub II) - V5d 4:14 1984 EP

Note: "Cover Me" versions 1 and 2, were recorded at The Hit Factory on January 25, 1982. Earlier in the year, David Geffen had approached Jon Landau to ask if Springsteen would write a song for Donna Summer. In response, Bruce wrote "Cover Me", but after Landau heard the January 25 tape, he told Bruce to come up with another song, because "we're keeping this one", so Bruce wrote 'Protection'. The January 25 session was recorded by Neil Dorfsman, not Bill Scheniman (his assistant), the engineer working on the Gary U.S. Bonds sessions, as previously reported. V2a is an alternative mix that lacks Springsteen's lead guitar overdubs, but has the count-in and full ending chopped off the released track. On May 12, 1982 at The Power Station, Springsteen cut nine additional takes (V3-V4), but those recordings remain in the vault. V5a thru V5d are dance/disco remixes cut at The Hit Factory in July 1984 by Arthur Baker. The recording engineer was Toby Scott, and they were released in early September 1984. V2 and V5 feature background vocals by Richie "La Bamba" Rosenberg.

DROP ON DOWN AND COVER ME - V1 take 1 uncirculating
DROP ON DOWN AND COVER ME - V2 take 6 uncirculating
DROP ON DOWN AND COVER ME - V3 take 7 uncirculating
DROP ON DOWN AND COVER ME - V4 take 9 uncirculating
DROP ON DOWN AND COVER ME - V5 take 10 uncirculating
DROP ON DOWN AND COVER ME - V6a take 11 7:17 uncirculating
DROP ON DOWN AND COVER ME - V6b take 11 4:37 SO / GS / BUERM / TDB / UH

Note: All versions of "Drop On Down and Cover Me" were recorded in eleven takes between May 31 and June 2, 1983. The final cut V6a was edited down to 4:37 from the original seven minutes. Springsteen included it on a July 1983 album track listing between "None But The Brave" and "Shut Out The Light", at the expense of his 1982 songs, which were eventually restored. Though it was included in early Tracks listings, with takes 6, 7, 9, 10 and 11 all pulled for evaluation, it was dropped before the final cut.

DANCING IN THE DARK - V1a 4:31 BUERM / 1984AC
DANCING IN THE DARK - V1b 3:57 BITUSA / ESSENTIAL / GREATEST
DANCING IN THE DARK - V2a - blaster mix 6:09 1984 EP
DANCING IN THE DARK - V2b - radio mix 4:50 1984 EP
DANCING IN THE DARK - V2c - dub mix 5:30 1984 EP

Note: The last song on Born In The U.S.A. to be recorded. Written in no time at all after Jon Landau convinced Bruce that the album needed a single. According to Dave Marsh in Glory Days, Bruce was not impressed with Landau's approach. "Look", he snarled, "I've written seventy songs. You want another one, you write it." Despite this reaction, Bruce sat in his hotel room and wrote the song in a single night. It sums up his state of mind, his feeling of isolation after the success of The River, and his frustrations of trying to write a hit-single. Six takes were cut on February 14, 1984 at The Hit Factory, then 58 mixes, completed on March 8. V1a contains a longer sax solo at the end that was shortened (cut) for the official album version. V2a thru V2c are dance/disco remixes done at The Power Station in April or early May 1984 by Arthur Baker. The recording engineer for the remixes was Chris Lord-Alge. These remixes were released on June 29, 1984. The 7" and 12" singles were released on May 9, 1984, and the 12" finished as the biggest selling in the U.S.A. that year.

I'M ON FIRE - V1a 2:42 private cdr
I'M ON FIRE - V1b 2:58 LM-20 / THLRR / UH / 1984AC
I'M ON FIRE - V1c 2:32 BITUSA / / GH09

Note: Rumoured to have been initially recorded at The Hit Factory in January 1982, but the Born In The U.S.A. recording is from The Power Station on May 11, 1982. All three are different mixes of the same core recording. The vocalisations and arrangements of the coda vary slightly between V1a and V1b. These two mixes also have longer fade-outs than the officially released V1c.

WORKING ON THE HIGHWAY - V1 3:25 private
WORKING ON THE HIGHWAY - V2 3:18 MI / THLRR / BUERM / TDB
WORKING ON THE HIGHWAY - V3 3:35 private cdr
WORKING ON THE HIGHWAY - V4a 3:09 LM-19 / UH / GS
WORKING ON THE HIGHWAY - V4b 3:10 BITUSA
WORKING ON THE HIGHWAY - V5 uncirculating

Note: Springsteen took the lyrics of January 1982's "Child Bride" and wrote an entirely new rock melody to create "Working On The Highway". V1 is a Colts Neck band rehearsal from April 1982. This take has a completely different final verse from both "Child Bride" and the final studio take of "Working On The Highway". In this verse the protagonist suggests that he wants to see her father to say "my love is pure and true", but first he must "drop a two lane blacktop from here to Timbuktu". There are also a few minor lyrical elements left over from "Child Bride", for example parts of lines three and four are reversed, as they are in the Nebraska outtake. V2-V4 recorded at The Power Station, on April 30 and V6 on May 6, 1982, during the 'Electric Nebraska' sessions.

I'M GOIN' DOWN - V1 3:29 THLBB / CAST
DOWN DOWN DOWN - V2 4:54 LM-19 / UH
I'M GOIN' DOWN - V3 4:04 THLRR
I'M GOIN' DOWN - V4 take 9 3:57 BUERM / THLBP / TDB
I'M GOIN' DOWN - V5 take 10 3:25 BITUSA

Note: Original title was "Down, Down, Down". All recording at The Power Station on May 12-13, 1982, with over ten takes on the latter date, including the album cut. V2, which 'Lost Masters' says was recorded November 9, 1983, was also from the 13th. V2, V3 and V4 lack the extra guitar over the introduction and the saxophone solo. V4 is take #9.

BOBBY JEAN - V1 uncirculating
BOBBY JEAN - V2 uncirculating
BOBBY JEAN - V3a 3:44 BUERM / 1984AC
BOBBY JEAN - V3b 3:47 BITUSA

Note: Recorded at the Hit Factory on July 28, 1983, eight takes were recorded. On October 10, 1983, and the track was completed. Though it was not known at the time, this was the tenth track confirmed for the eventual BITUSA, with "No Surrender" and "Dancing In the Dark" still to come. Bruce said, “Bobby Jean” and “No Surrender” were great tributes to the bonding power of rock and my friendship with Steve.

GLORY DAYS - V1 1:59 LM-10
GLORY DAYS - V2 4:24 private
GLORY DAYS - V3a 4:54 THLBP / THLBB
GLORY DAYS - V3b 5:18 LM-19 / UH / GS / MI / BUERM / TDB / RTT
GLORY DAYS - V3c 5:05 private cdr
GLORY DAYS - V3d 4:11 BITUSA / ESSENTIAL / GREATEST

Note: V1 is a very early demo from January-April 1982, includes the "my dad" verse that was cut from the final album version, but appears in most circulating bootlegs. V2 is a Colts Neck band rehearsal from April 1982. It seems the song was fairly well developed and rehearsed at this point. Some minor lyrical variations throughout, and it lacks the entire call-and-response ending. V3 is recorded at The Power Station on May 5, 1982; four different mixes are known. V3a only appears on 'This Hard Land' issues and 'Roll The Tapes', and is unique because of the serious audio distortion that runs throughout. V3b is unedited and contains the extra verse cut from the officially released version. The wild variations in track length appear to be due to tape speed, and there are two variations in the count-in. An alternative source of V3b includes an engineer identifying the take as #11.

DARLINGTON COUNTY - V1 uncirculating
DARLINGTON COUNTY - V2 5:04 LM-7
DARLINGTON COUNTY - V3 5:04 private
DARLINGTON COUNTY - V4a 5:20 LM-19 / THLRR
DARLINGTON COUNTY - V4b 4:44 BITUSA

Note: V1 represents rehearsals and takes of "Darlington County" from June-August 1977 at either Atlantic Studios and the Record Plant, though it is believed a recording was made on June 14, 1977. Though recordings from the Darkness sessions have not and may never surface, there is enough Darkness-era documentation indicating a song by this name was worked on early in the sessions. At some point, it was set aside, and not picked up again until 1982, except for a recording on 'Lost Masters Volume 7', titled, "08 Untitled Harmonies #1", which is Bruce's da-da of a tune that is 95% "Darlington County" from January 1980. V3 is a band rehearsal from Colts Neck, New Jersey, recorded in April 1982, a rather pedestrian take, noted by both Max and Bruce at the conclusion of the song. V4 was recorded in a single take at the Power Station, New York on May 13, 1982. V4a, which appears to be a slightly longer, slower take on 'Lost Masters XIX' is actually the released version V4b, before vocal overdubs, fixed- up intro, and the use of varispeed to speed the track up.

YOUR HOMETOWN - V1 3:30 LM-17 / MT1
YOUR HOMETOWN - V2 3:14 LM-17
YOUR HOMETOWN - V3 3:23 LM-17 / GS#1
YOUR HOMETOWN - V4 3:16 LM-17 / GS#2
MY HOMETOWN - V5 take 1 6:47 uncirculating
MY HOMETOWN - V6 take 2 6:22 uncirculating
MY HOMETOWN - V7 take 3 4:25 BITUSA / GREATEST
MY HOMETOWN - V8 take 4 4:54 LM-19

Note: Written in late 1982 as a rockabilly song called "Your Hometown", with many of the album version lyrics finished by late January 1983. V1-V4 were early takes recorded by Bruce and Toby Scott at his new home, at 7965 Fareholm Drive, Los Angeles, California 90046, on January 29 and 30, and February 9 and 17, 1983. The demos are of good quality, probably prepared to aid in teaching the song to the band. Instead, Bruce set it aside for a few months, and came back with a new title, "My Hometown", and an arrangement for the band. On June 29, 1983 at The Hit Factory, four complete takes were recorded, but the first two were discarded because they both exceeded six minutes. Takes 3 and 4, which both featuring Ruth Jackson (wife of sound engineer Bruce Jackson) on background vocals, were the finalists, with take 3 V7 chosen for Born In The U.S.A..

NO SURRENDER - V1 uncirculating
NO SURRENDER - V2 uncirculating
NO SURRENDER - V3 3:57 BITUSA
NO SURRENDER - V4 uncirculating

Note: Near the end of the Born In the U.S.A. sessions, Bruce brings in a new composition, "No Surrender", and the band goes to work on it for three days, October 25-27, 1983, with the album arrangement (V3) recorded October 27 at The Hit Factory. Richie "La Bamba" Rosenberg contributes background vocals. Springsteen would return on November 29, 1983 to cut an acoustic version (V4). Almost didn't make the album, it was only added after Steve Van Zandt convinced Springsteen that it should be included. At the time CBS had an eleven-song album without "No Surrender" ready to go. Van Zandt argued that "Dancing In The Dark" should be cut in favour of "No Surrender", but in the end there was space on the album for both.

EVERYDAY AND EVERY NIGHT - V1 4:05 LM-8
JANEY, DON'T YOU LOSE HEART - V2 uncirculating
JANEY, DON'T YOU LOSE HEART - V3 4:31 UH / GS / MI / 1984AC
JANEY, DON'T YOU LOSE HEART - V4 3:24 1985 single / TRACKS / BACK

Note: V1 is Bruce composing a new song in March 1979 at his Telegraph Hill Studio; "Everyday and Every Night" would eventually get new lyrics in 1983, and is renamed "Janey Don't You Lose Heart". V2 and V3 are both recorded on June 16, 1983 at The Hit Factory, New York, and V4 is released September 7, 1985, as the b-side of "I'm Goin' Down". V3 has a much longer fade out and features Steve Van Zandt on background vocals and guitar. V4 is the same recording, except Nils Lofgren records new vocal and guitar parts on July 14, 1985, to overdub and replace the tracks recorded by former E Street Band member Steve Van Zandt.

PROTECTION - V1 3:30 LM-4 / MI / GS / MILM / UH / BUERM
PROTECTION - V2 3:35 GUEST: DONNA / 1983 single
PROTECTION - V3 uncirculated

Note: "Protection" V1 is the demo recorded for Donna Summer by Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band at The Hit Factory on February 23, 1982. Earlier in the year, David Geffen had contacted Jon Landau to ask if Springsteen would write a song for Donna. In response, Bruce wrote "Cover Me", but after hearing it, Landau said, "You aren’t giving this one away". Even though he disagreed, Springsteen wrote another song, "Protection", in early February. A song of the same name, which consists of six short acoustic demos, recorded during The River sessions in 1979, was bootlegged on 'Lost Masters Volume VIII' in the 1990s. It is not clear whether Springsteen or the bootleggers titled it, and it was never published or copyrighted like the rest of the Springsteen catalogue. It bears little in common musically or lyrically with this song, composed three years later, and copyrighted on March 8, 1982. The demo of "Protection" was sent to Summer and her producer, Quincy Jones, and it was arranged for Roy Bittan and Bruce to fly out to Los Angeles to cut the track. On March 8, they arrived at Westlake Audio Studios, on Santa Monica Boulevard in Los Angeles, where Summers's tenth album, Donna Summer, was in production. Bruce struck up a friendly relationship with Jones, who he would work with again in 1985, recording "We Are the World". He also apparently got along with Donna, sleeping on her couch that evening as they worked on the song. He played guitar and provided backing vocals for the recording V2, which consisted of multiple takes. Quincy was thoroughly impressed, later saying Bruce "was one of the nicest people I have ever worked with…The man has more musical knowledge than a lot of people think and has a deep sense of commitment to music. You could feel his spirit in the sessions". It is not clear whether one of the takes was a vocal duet with Donna V3. The album was released later in the year, without the success of her disco records of the 1970s, but she was nominated for the Grammy, "Best Female Rock Vocal Performance" for "Protection" 1983. Springsteen has never performed the song in concert, although it was rehearsed in early 1988 for the upcoming Tunnel Of Love Express tour.

MURDER INCORPORATED - V1a 4:05 MI / GS / MILM / LM-19 / TDB / UH
MURDER INCORPORATED - V1b 4:13 private cdr
MURDER INCORPORATED - V1c 4:22 THLBP / THLRR / RTT
MURDER INCORPORATED - V1d 4:31 THLBP / RTT
MURDER INCORPORATED - V1e 4:47 THLBB
MURDER INCORPORATED - V1f 3:57 SFEM
MURDER INCORPORATED - V1g 4:02 GREATEST / ESSENTIAL: 2015
MURDER INCORPORATED - V2 4:03 MI / GS / MILM / UH

Note: Recorded at The Power Station May 3-4, 1982. Different mix permutations of the same core recording. The recording found on track 3 of the LP 'This Hard Land' (Boss Productions) could be another different mix but runs very slow. Track 5 from the aforementioned LP is V1c, which lacks a "woo" before the opening line as well as some backing vocals. V1a deletes the saxophone solo after the second verse. The officially released V1e includes the saxophone solo but fades out earlier than the outtakes, explaining the ten second difference in track length V2 is a mix so different it gets it's own version number. Different instruments and sound.

MY LOVE WILL NOT LET YOU DOWN - V1a 3:12 private cdr
MY LOVE WILL NOT LET YOU DOWN - V1b 4:20 LM-19 / THLRR / UH / GS / THLBP
MY LOVE WILL NOT LET YOU DOWN - V1c 4:32 MI / UH / GS
MY LOVE WILL NOT LET YOU DOWN - V1d 4:20 TRACKS
MY LOVE WILL NOT LET YOU DOWN - V2 uncirculating
MY LOVE WILL NOT LET YOU DOWN - V3 uncirculating

Note: Recorded at the Power Station on May 5 (V1), 6 (V2), and 7 (V3), 1982. The studio venue listed in Tracks is incorrect. All the mixes are very similar, but V1b has Springsteen adding a count-in, vocalizations over the first thirty seconds of the song and a complete ending. V1a cuts early. V1c and d fade out, and the V1d mix used for Tracks has slightly different vocals at the end of the song, maybe a 1998 voice. Bruce Springsteen said in 2001 of the song: "I don't know why it got left off. It was one of those things we pulled out in the first rehearsal and went, Whoa!".

SHUT OUT THE LIGHT - V1a 4:33 LM-16 / UH
SHUT OUT THE LIGHT - V1b 3:25 LM-18
SHUT OUT THE LIGHT - V1c 3:56 1984 b-side / BACK
SHUT OUT THE LIGHT - V1d 3:51 TRACKS
SHUT OUT THE LIGHT - V2 uncirculating

Note: Same core recording V1 from January 19, 1983 but four different mixes. V1a is considered by many to be the definitive version of the song – it contains two additional lyric verses that were cut from the three other mixes. V1c contains a violin part courtesy of Soozie Tyrell that she overdubbed, probably in May 1983 (her first session work for Bruce). V1d brings the violin more to the fore in the mix. Considered for the album before it was released in 1984 as the b-side to "Born In The USA". V2 Recorded May 23 and 25, 1983. Likely sessions to add Soozie Tyrell's violin to January's Thrill Hill West recording.

COME ON (LET'S GO TONIGHT) - V1 2:32 FFOD / HNWB
BYE BYE JOHNNY - V2 uncirculating
BYE BYE JOHNNY - V3a 1:45 LM-16 trk 10 / UH / GS
BYE BYE JOHNNY - V3b 1:45 LM-18 trk 13
BYE BYE JOHNNY - V3c 1:39 LM-18 trk 10
JOHNNY BYE-BYE - V3d 1:51 1985 b-side / BACK
JOHNNY BYE-BYE - V3e 1:49 TRACKS
BYE BYE JOHNNY - V4 - with the Crickets 2:55 LM-16 trk 11 / MT2 / ESRR
BYE BYE JOHNNY - V5 2:58 LM-17 trk 12 / GS
BYE BYE JOHNNY - V6 3:41 LM-17 trk 13 / GS

Note: While he was resting between legs of the River Tour in March 1981, Bruce glanced at his to-do list, which said "recycle orphaned lyrics from "Come On (Let's Go Tonight)", which had lost it's backing track to "Factory" in 1977, when Bruce changed lyrics and song direction. So he whipped together a demo V1, with new music that he recorded at home in April 1981, recycling the title, too. This totally different version of "Come On (Let's Go Tonight)" can be found on Nebraska bootlegs, 'Fistfull Of Dollars' and 'How Nebraska Was Born' under the incorrect name, "Bye Bye Johnny". A dark, foreboding arrangement used the discarded lyrics, including the part about Elvis dying, and became a Nebraska-style song. Just before he was sentenced to three years for being the real-life inspiration for "Child Bride" in 1962, Chuck Berry wrote "Bye Bye Johnny", a sequel to "Johnny B. Goode", where a mother sent her musician son off to Hollywood to be a star. "She drew out all her money from the Southern Trust, and put her little boy aboard the Greyhound Bus" wasn't a big hit for Chuck, but Bruce decided to use those lines in 1981, for a new song that used most of the lyrics from "Come On (Let's Go Tonight)", calling it "Johnny Bye-Bye" V2. He kept the lines about Elvis dying in 1977, added stuff about Memphis, and had a bouncy hillbilly blues thing going. On May 13, 1981, at Manchester, UK's Apollo Theatre, Johnny Bye-Bye became the first song since 'The Ties That Bind' in 1978 to be played live before being recorded. Springsteen sang it thirty-two times on the River tour. He did not record it as part of the January 1982 Nebraska demos at Colt's Neck; the legendary Nebraska version of "Johnny Bye Bye" does not exist. The version on the tape he sent Landau was almost certainly a live July 1981 recording. When the Nebraska tape was backed up in June 1982 in its entirety, alternate takes and all, there was still no "Johnny Bye Bye".
The first studio take of "Bye Bye Johnny" was recorded on April 27, 1982, at the Power Station, New York, during the 'Electric Nebraska' sessions. This audio does not circulate, but we'll call it V2. What would become the official versions were recorded on January 4, 1983 at Bruce's Hollywood Hills converted studio, Thrill Hill West, Los Angeles, CA, and five different mixes circulate. V3d, released February 6, 1985, as the B-side to "I'm On Fire", features a different drum overdub to that found on the mix chosen for Tracks, V3e. V3b and V3c have slight but noticeable variations in their mixes. V4 and V5 were recorded on March 9, 1983 at Thrill Hill West, Los Angeles, CA, and are different takes of a slower acoustic arrangement with a gentle synthesizer backing, slight lyrical differences and overdubbed with chirping crickets at the start and end. By far the definitive performance is V6, from March 24, 1983 at Thrill Hill West, which includes a poignant extra verse at the end, not found on the other versions. "Johnny Bye-Bye" was included on the July 1983 sequence for Born In The U.S.A., but was later deleted. After the lawyers met, Bruce and Chuck became composing partners, the song now registered as Springsteen-Berry.

CYNTHIA - V1 3:24 LM-18 / GS
CYNTHIA - V2a 4:01 SO / MAT / UH
CYNTHIA - V2b 4:10 TRACKS
CYNTHIA - V3 uncirculating

Note: V1 was recorded April 20-21, 1983 at Thrill Hill West, Bruce's Hollywood Hills home, in rockabilly-style on a set of homesick demos. V2 was Bruce re-recording this with The E Street Band on June 15, 1983, not April 20 as the Tracks notes claim, at The Hit Factory, New York. Three takes (two complete), both circulating in a much more rocking arrangement. "Cynthia" resurrected as V3 on May 23, 1995; studio logs show this was recorded the same day as "The Ghost Of Tom Joad", at Thrill Hill West with a four-man backing band of Danny Federici (keyboards), Garry Tallent (bass), Marty Rifkin (pedal steel, dobro) and Gary Mallaber (drums). The E Street Band took her on the road in 2003.

STAND ON IT - V1a 3:03 TRACKS
STAND ON IT - V1b 2:30 1985 b-side / TRP / BACK

Note: Recorded on June 16, 1983. V1a is the superior version and contains an additional verse edited from the original b-side, which was released in May 1985 with "Glory Days".

FOLLOW THAT DREAM - V1a 0:19 LM-17
FOLLOW THAT DREAM - V1b 4:06 LM-17
FOLLOW THAT DREAM - V1c 4:03 LM-17
FOLLOW THAT DREAM - V1d 3:59 LM-18 / UH / MILM
FOLLOW THAT DREAM - V1e 3:56 LM-18

Note: Vocally, all four seem to be identical and any differences may only be in the mix. Recorded January 29-30 and February 7-8 and 17, 1983 and considered for the album. Haunting rewrite of the Elvis Presley classic which was considered at one point for Born In The U.S.A.. Premiered live on April 19, 1981 in Paris during The River Tour, and played occasionally thereafter. Shares a melody with "Baby I'm So Cold".

BABY I'M SO COLD (Turn The Lights Down Low) - V1 3:46 LM-10
BABY I'M SO COLD - V2 4:02 private
BABY I'M SO COLD - V3 uncirculating

Note: V1 recorded January-April 1982, at Bruce's Hollywood Hills studio. He used the same melody he composed for "Follow That Dream", with lyrics reminiscent of "Loose Ends", and contains some lyrics that would end up in "Janey Don't You Lose Heart". V2 is a fascinating band rehearsal from Colts Neck in April 1982, still using the borrowed melody. Even though "Loose Ends" was finished in 1979, it's clear Springsteen was keen to scavenge most of the lyrics for "Baby I'm So Cold", but then again, I'm so Cold was never released, and sometimes we have little idea what Bruce is doing with his vast empire of songs. Later recorded at The Power Station on May 11, 1982.

SUGARLAND - V1 0:08 LM-17
SUGARLAND - V2 2:50 LM-17
SUGARLAND - V3 2:42 LM-16 / GT
SUGARLAND - V4 2:29 LM-16
SUGARLAND - V5 2:53 LM-19 / UH / MILM
SUGARLAND - V6 2:45 LM-18
SUGARLAND - V7 uncirculating

Note: Takes recorded January 18-19 and 30, February 7-8, 14 and 17, 1983. Five takes circulate, all complete performances in varying arrangements. V2 is rockabilly. V3 and V6 are more rock-orientated, and appear to have the same vocal take. The only differences between the two may be in the backing music, or the mix. The 'Lost Masters' liner notes consider V4 to be in a country-style, but is actually more of a Cajun style. These arrangements pale in comparison to V5 which is quiet and atmospheric and the definitive version. Recorded in the studio in May 1983 - V7 is fourteen takes recorded at The Hit Factory on May 25, 1983. Performed live twice on the 1984-5 Born In The U.S.A. Tour, but never since.

WAGES OF SIN - V1 2:00 LM-10
WAGES OF SIN - V2 0:20 LM-10
WAGES OF SIN - V3 3:05 LM-10
WAGES OF SIN - V4 5:10 LM-10
WAGES OF SIN - V5 4:49 TRACKS

Note: V1-V4 an interesting group of takes recorded at Springsteen's home in Colts Neck, NJ January-April 1982. V5 is most like the final version on Tracks, recorded at The Power Station on May 10, 1982. Premiered live May 8, 2013 in Turku, Finland. "Wages Of Sin" #3 on 'Lost Masters Volume 10' is actually "Bells Of San Salvador" V4.

THIS HARD LAND - V1 4.46 THLRR / TRACKS / UH / SQBI / MI / GS
THIS HARD LAND - V2 4.50 THLBP / THLBB / MAT / CAST
THIS HARD LAND - V3 4:43 VA
THIS HARD LAND - V4 uncirculating
THIS HARD LAND - V5 uncirculating
THIS HARD LAND - V6 uncirculating
THIS HARD LAND - V7 4:33 YBNT2 / BB
THIS HARD LAND - V8 4:40 DDITV
THIS HARD LAND - V9 4:48 GREATEST
THIS HARD LAND - V10 5:40 private

Note: V1-V4 recorded at the Power Station (not The Hit Factory, as the Tracks liner notes suggest) on May 11 and 13-14, 1982. Springsteen returned to it with two demos (V5 and V6) recorded on January 3 and 15, 1983. Re-recorded in January 1995 at The Hit Factory, New York City, for the Greatest Hits sessions. Frank Pagano guests on percussion instruments. V7 is a brief snippet shown in the video. V6 and V8 are two different recordings, though very similar. Neither is as good as the original 1982 Born In The USA studio session version that is available on Tracks. V9 is take #3 with mandolin and accordion and an extended coda.

COUNTY FAIR - V1a 4:58 LM-17
COUNTY FAIR - V1b 4:50 ESSENTIAL: BONUS
COUNTY FAIR - V2 5:02 LM-19 / UH

Note: V1 is two slightly different mixes of the same performance, recorded March 24, 1983. Another atmospheric gem. V2 recorded May 23, 1983 and features Ruth Jackson on background vocals. This was likely recorded at the same session as "My Hometown" (which also features Jackson). Not as atmospheric as the version recorded during the January 1983 sessions and released on The Essential.

PINK CADILLAC - V1 uncirculating
PINK CADILLAC - V2 take 2 5:21 LM-1 / HNWB / MT2
PINK CADILLAC - V3a 3:45 BUERM / 1984AC
PINK CADILLAC - V3b 4:21 private cdr
PINK CADILLAC - V3c 3:33 1984 Japan b-side
PINK CADILLAC - V3d 3:33 1984 b-side / TRACKS / CAST

Note: V1 and V2 recorded January 3, 1982. Two takes were recorded. V3 recorded on May 31, 1983. Officially released in May 1984 as the b-side to "Dancing In The Dark". V3b has the complete ending, V3c is a mono mix that for some reason was only issued on the Japanese single. Included on a 1984 Born In The USA artwork prototype, in place of both "No Surrender" and "I'm Goin' Down".

FRANKIE - V1 uncirculating
FRANKIE - V2 4:46 LM-3 / DDO / DO-2 / AM / UP / LES / GT / DDOC
FRANKIE - V3 5:46 DOT TAPE
FRANKIE - V4a take 10 7:23 private cdr
FRANKIE - V4b 7:41 THLRR / MI / THLBP / UH
FRANKIE - V4c 7:39 LM-19
FRANKIE - V4d 7:22 TRACKS

Note: "Frankie" was composed by Bruce Springsteen in early 1976, just after the Born To Run Tour. Demos were also recorded at this time of Drifter's Barrio, Dawn Patrol, and several other titles. One report (Christopher Sandford in his book, Point Blank) indicates a demo of "Frankie" was recorded in January 1976, along with a completed recording of Darkness On The Edge Of Town. However the accuracy of this information is unclear, as early Darkness recordings from June 1977 indicate most of the words to that song were still unwritten. "Frankie" was near completion when it was debuted live on the Chicken Scratch Tour. The performance on April 4, 1976 in East Lansing, MI notably included the lines "In the darkness there'll be hidden worlds that shine." When Springsteen returned to the studio after the litigation with Mike Appel was resolved, V2 was recorded at Atlantic Studios on June 3, 1977. V3 is a take from the next session on July 12, 1977, also at Atlantic Studios. Apparently, "Frankie" did not fit Bruce's concept for the album, and it was set aside, not to be recorded again during the Darkness sessions. When writing "Candy's Room" a few months later, Bruce lifted some lyrics from "Frankie", specifically, the "In the darkness, there'll be hidden words that shine" line. Five years later, 'Frankie' was recorded on May 14, 1982, at The Power Station, New York, on the last day of three weeks of sessions. Take 10 was chosen, and completed with several overdubs. Though it was not included on Born In The U.S.A., V4d was considered for Greatest Hits (again missing the cut) before being selected for the Tracks-compilation in 1998. One other mix, V4a, has the same saxophone overdub during the instrumental outro as V4d. V4b and V4c were alternative mixes without sax. It is not known if the Darkness-versions were considered for Tracks.

NONE BUT THE BRAVE - V1a 5:24 BUERM / UH / MAT / MILM / RTT
NONE BUT THE BRAVE - V1b 5:12 SO / GT
NONE BUT THE BRAVE - V2 5:29 ESSENTIAL: BONUS

Note: 'None But the Brave' was cut on June 6, 1983, with follow-up sessions on June 13 and 27. V2 was a fresh recording on June 27, with Miami Steve Van Zandt cutting loose on guitar. This alternate take was released on the bonus third CD of The Essential Bruce Springsteen in November 2003.

TV MOVIE - V1 2:40 private
TV MOVIE - V2a 2:34 LM-19 / UH
TV MOVIE - V2b 2:39 TRACKS

Note: V1 is a band rehearsal from Colts Neck in April 1982. Very similar to V2, the final studio recording cut on June 13, 1983 and issued on Tracks. Two different mixes known; V2a has sax. V2b has the sax deleted.

DANIEL IN THE LION'S DEN - V1 0:55 FFOD / HNWB
DANIEL IN THE LION'S DEN - V2 2:18 uncirculating
LION'S DEN - V3 2:18 TRACKS

Note: 'Daniel In the Lion's Den' V1 was recorded late March to early April, 1981, at Springsteen's home in Colts Neck, NJ, and consists of the chorus, repeated. V2 base track recorded at The Hit Factory on January 25, 1982, from the Gary U.S. Bonds sessions. V3 overdubs the 1998 horn section (Cruz-Manion-Pender-Rosenberg-Spengler) for Tracks. The original 1982 element was not recorded by Toby Scott but rather by Neil Dorfsman, the engineer for the Bonds LP.

MAN AT THE TOP - V1a 4:08 uncirculating
MAN AT THE TOP - V1b 3:16 TRACKS

Note: Recorded on January 12, 1984 at The Hit Factory, New York, NY, take 2, slow acoustic version. Springsteen premiered the song live on July 12, 1984 on the Born In The U.S.A. Tour. Thanks to the Panda for providing track length of full cut with hard stop, before it was downsized and faded out for Tracks.

ROCKAWAY THE DAYS 4:40 TRACKS

Note: Recorded on January 12, 1984 The Hit Factory, New York, NY. Recording date listed on Tracks (February 3) could be a mixing date.

A GOOD MAN IS HARD TO FIND (PITTSBURGH) - V1 3:40 private
A GOOD MAN IS HARD TO FIND (PITTSBURGH) - V2 uncirculating
A GOOD MAN IS HARD TO FIND (PITTSBURGH) - V3 3:12 TRACKS

Note: V1 is a Colts Neck band rehearsal from April 1982. Very similar to the final take, slightly slower with some lyrical variation. V2 and V3 recorded at The Power Station on May 5-6, 1982.

DON'T BACK DOWN - V1 0:55 CAST
DON'T BACK DOWN - V2 3:03 LM-18
DON'T BACK DOWN - V3 3:01 LM-18
DON'T BACK DOWN - V4 3:02 LM-18
DON'T BACK DOWN - V5 2:29 LM-18
DON'T BACK DOWN - V6 0.43 LM-18
DON'T BACK DOWN - V7 2:23 LM-18
DON'T BACK DOWN - V8 2:28 LM-18
DON'T BACK DOWN - V9 2:52 LM-18
DON'T BACK DOWN - V10 2:52 LM-16
DON'T BACK DOWN - V11 3:12 LM-16
DON'T BACK DOWN - V12 3:34 LM-16 / UH
DON'T BACK DOWN - V13 uncirculating

Note: V1 recorded at Springsteen's home in Colts Neck, NJ from mid-September 1981 thru May 1982, a brief demo of V11 of "Don't Back Down", track four of 'The Lost Masters XVI'. Other known recordings on January 4, 18 and 20, February 8-10 and 14-15, and March 10 and 12, 1983. All circulating recordings are complete takes, except for V6, which is abandoned. V2 thru V4 and V10 are rock-flavored and appear to share the same vocal-take. Indeed, the differences between the takes are slight, and may only be found in the backing music or the mix. V5 thru V9 are acoustic-flavored, and once again seem to share the same vocal-take. V11 utilizes double tracked vocal, a different melody and lyrics and is excellent. It could perhaps be considered a completely different song that only shares a title with the other versions listed here. It may well be this song (V11) that was considered for use as a b-side. V12 is the slowest and arguably the definitive version, using the same backing music as "The Klansman". V13 recorded June 15, 1983 at The Hit Factory, New York. The arrangement chosen for this studio recording is unknown.

JAMES LINCOLN DEER - V1 4:14 LMEC2 / HNWB
JAMES LINCOLN DEER - V2 uncirculating
JAMES LINCOLN DEER - V3 uncirculating
JAMES LINCOLN DEER - V4 uncirculating
JAMES LINCOLN DEER - V5 uncirculating

Note: "James Lincoln Deer" aka "James Lincoln Dear" V1 first recorded March 1982 at Colts Neck. Picked up again V2 on January 20, 1983. V2 and V3 followed on February 15 and 17, and V4 March 12, 1983, all at Thrill Hill Recording, Hollywood Hills, California. Developed into "Richfield Whistle".

RICHFIELD WHISTLE - V1 6:28 LM-18 / UH
RICHFIELD WHISTLE - V2 uncirculating
RICHFIELD WHISTLE - V3 uncirculating

Note: "Richfield Whistle" V1 was recorded on April 24, 1983, at Thrill Hill Recording, Hollywood Hills, California. Developed from the 1981-83 work-in-progress composition "James Lincoln Deer". V2 recorded with the band at The Hit Factory on May 27, and V3 on June 10, 1983, neither in circulation.

FUGITIVE'S DREAM 3:59 LM-16 / UH / BUOR

Note: Two known takes, recorded January 20 and March 24, 1983. Which take is on 'Lost Masters 16' is unknown.

UNSATISFIED HEART - V1 or V2 5:22 LM-17 / UH / GS
UNSATISFIED HEART - V2 or V1 uncirculating
UNSATISFIED HEART - V3 5:38 uncirculating

Note: V1 was recorded on March 24, 1983 at Thrill Hill Recording, Los Angeles, California, and V2 was cut on April 16. It is unknown which of these two takes is the one circulating. V3 was recorded on June 13, 1983 at the Hit Factory, New York. One take only, with a 5:38 running time, but not yet released.

BELLS OF SAN SALVADOR - V1 1:28 LM-10
BELLS OF SAN SALVADOR - V2 1:17 LM-10
BELLS OF SAN SALVADOR - V3 0:32 LM-10
BELLS OF SAN SALVADOR - V4 2:18 LM-10
BELLS OF SAN SALVADOR - V5 3:09 LM-10
BELLS OF SAN SALVADOR - V6 3:07 private

Note: Additional elements of this composition have recently been identified. V1 can be found, incorrectly titled as 'Ruled By The Gun #2' on Lost Masters X. V2 is track 11 on the same CD, 'Untitled Riff', which ends with Springsteen speaking the words, "Bells Of San Salvador", which links all these recordings under that title. V1-5 were recorded at Springsteen's home in Colts Neck, NJ in late 1981 or early 1982. V3 and V5 are tracks 23 and 22 on LM-10, incorrectky titled 'They Killed Him In The Street', as is v4, 'Wages Of Sin #3', track 13. A careful listen shows V1 and V4 were mistakenly grouped with other outtakes on the CD. According to Pete, by April 1982, Springsteen had almost finished "Bells Of San Salvador", and a band rehearsal, V6, was recorded. A "sinister and oppressive" song, it describes a 1979 massacre that took place on the steps of San Salvador cathedral in El Salvador. Despite being well developed, it was not cut at The Power Station later that month like the rest of the songs rehearsed, and session logs indicate it was never recorded in the studio. Similar lyrics can also be found in Springsteen's adaptation of Creedence Clearwater Revival's "Run Through The Jungle", which was performed live three times during the European leg of the River Tour.

YOUR LOVE IS ALL AROUND ME - V1 1:07 private
YOUR LOVE IS ALL AROUND ME - V2 3:28 private
YOUR LOVE IS ALL AROUND ME - V3 uncirculating
YOUR LOVE IS ALL AROUND ME - V4 5:51 LM-10
YOUR LOVE IS ALL AROUND ME - V5 3:18 LM-10
YOUR LOVE IS ALL AROUND ME - V6 0:49 LM-10

Note: Reminiscent of "My Love Will Not Let You Down". V1 and V2 are two takes from a Colts Neck band rehearsal in April 1982, song still in the early stages of development. V4 is just the opening and first verse, V5 is most of the song, although the majority of lyrics are unclear. V6 was recorded with the band at The Power Station May 10, 1982, on the same reel as "Wages Of Sin".

TRUE LOVE IS HARD TO COME BY - V1 0:30 LM-10
TRUE LOVE IS HARD TO COME BY - V2 0.15 LM-10
TRUE LOVE IS HARD TO COME BY - V3 1:40 LM-10
TRUE LOVE IS HARD TO COME BY - V4 1:10 LM-10
TRUE LOVE IS HARD TO COME BY - V5 1:25 LM-10
TRUE LOVE IS HARD TO COME BY - V6 uncirculating

Note: V1-V5 are acoustic demos recorded January-April 1982. V3 is solely harmonies, V4 features lyrics similar to "Dollhouse". V5 has lyrics from "Janey Don't You Lose Heart". V6 recorded with the band at The Hit Factory on June 2, 1983. Shortlisted for Tracks.

SMALL TOWN GIRL - V1 2:04 TRACKS
CAR WASH - V2 uncirculating
SMALL TOWN GIRL as CAR WASH - V3 2:04 TRACKS

Note: V1 recorded on May 31, 1983 under the title "Small Town Girl". Six months after it was in the can, Springsteen returns for another go, V2 on November 30, 1983. V1 was later selected for Tracks, but they changed the name to "Car Wash" for the box set. We don't rewrite history, so V3 went on Tracks, but is the same as V1.

BROTHERS UNDER THE BRIDGES 5:02 TRACKS

Note: Recorded on September 14, 15, 16 and October 10, 1983, with a take from the 14th chosen for Tracks.

LITTLE GIRL (LIKE YOU) - V1 1:20 LM-16 / UH / GS
LITTLE GIRL (LIKE YOU) - V2 1:24 LM-17

Note: Two different recordings but quite similar, both recorded January 20, 1983. Short, but sweet. Considered for use as a b-side in March 1983.

DELIVERY MAN - V1 2:17 LM-17 / GS
DELIVERY MAN - V2a 2:50 LM-17 / UH / GS
DELIVERY MAN - V2b 2:43 GS

Note: Two different recordings. V1 is more rocking and has a quick fade-out. V2 is the definitive version and features an extra verse not found in V1. The song is missing from studio logs, suggesting it was recorded at a standalone session, separate from the other songs listed here.

THE KLANSMAN 2:54 LM-16 / UH / BUOR

Note: Compelling song about a boy's indoctrination into the Klu Klux Klan. The Lost Masters liner notes say it was recorded January 4, 1983 - this may be an error as studio logs only list one take, recorded March 10, 1983.

SEVEN TEARS - V1 1:56 LM-16 / GS / MT2

Note: Short but sweet. The 'Lost Masters' liner notes say it was recorded January 4, 1983 - this may be an error as studio logs only list one take, recorded February 15, 1983.

ONE LOVE 4:40 LM-16 / UH / GS

Note: Only one known take, recorded January 19, 1983. Considered for use as a b-side in March 1983.

BETTY JEAN 2:17 LM-16 / GS

Note: Only one known take, recorded January 20, 1983. No relation to "Bobby Jean", or Chuck Berry's version.

BAD BOY uncirculating

Note: Recorded at The Hit Factory on June 2, 1983.

JUST AROUND THE CORNER TO THE LIGHT OF DAY uncirculating

Note: Recorded May 25, 1983. Quite a complex story behind this song. The original title when recorded during the Born In The U.S.A. sessions was "Just Around The Corner To The Light Of Day". A demo of the song was sent to screenwriter/director Paul Schrader in 1985 for consideration for his upcoming film about struggling rock musicians. Ironically Schrader had sent Springsteen a draft screenplay for this movie (then-titled Born In The U.S.A.) in 1981 hoping Bruce might craft a song for it. Bruce never did write a song for Schrader at the time. Schrader then put this film project on hold to direct the 1982 movie Cat People. However the script's title (though not its storyline) spurred Bruce at the time to alter a partially written song of his called "Vietnam" and create the song "Born In The U.S.A.". Fast forward four years – in 1985, when Schrader received the go-ahead to make the film, he couldn't use his title Born In The U.S.A. because by that point it had become too closely associated with Springsteen. Schrader again asked Bruce for a song and Bruce donated this – which Schrader loved so much that he re-copyrighted his screenplay in 1985 under the new title Just Around The Corner To The Light Of Day. In 1986 when the film was being shot, both the movie and song titles were shortened to "Light Of Day". It had never been intended that Springsteen's recording would be used in the film. The song was recorded by the film's stars, Joan Jett and Michael J. Fox ("The Barbusters"), and released concurrently with the movie in February 1987. The Barbusters first performed the song live at a nightclub appearance in mid-1986. Springsteen first performed the song live on April 12, 1987. A later live version was officially released on MTV Unplugged.

GONE, GONE, GONE - V1 uncirculating
GONE, GONE, GONE - V2 uncirculating
SEEDS - V3 uncirculating

Note: V1 of "Gone, Gone, Gone" was recorded at The Hit Factory on May 25, 1983, and V2 on May 31. Springsteen renamed it "Seeds", finishing the lyrics before he debuted it in London on July 3, 1985 during the Born In The USA Tour. Both versions include the lyrics 'Movin' on movin' on it's gone gone it's all gone'. It is unknown if a final studio version was completed, so V3 may be a rehearsal on the road.

BODY AND SOUL - V1 uncirculating
BODY AND SOUL - V2 uncirculating
BODY AND SOUL - V3 uncirculating

Note: V1 is an uncirculated track recorded January 20, 1983. V2 recorded with the band at The Hit Factory on May 25 and June 2, 1983. V3 Recorded November 29, 1983. Despite this attention, it remains in the vaults.

INVITATION TO YOUR PARTY uncirculating

Note: Two takes recorded May 31, 1983, one labelled as "fast".

GLORY OF LOVE uncirculating

Note: Recorded September 16, 1983. Included on a Tracks concept compilation in 1993.

I DON'T CARE uncirculating

Note: Uncirculated track recorded at some point prior to February 1983.

THE MONEY WE DIDN'T MAKE uncirculating

Note: Uncirculated track recorded February 15, 1983.

JOHNNY GO DOWN uncirculating

Note: Uncirculated track recorded March 9 and 12, 1983 and marked as "new idea" on the March 9 reel. Included on a 1993 in-house Tracks "concept album".

STOP THE WAR - V1 3:48 private
STOP THE WAR - V2 uncirculating

Note: Very promising song from the band rehearsals at Colts Neck in April 1982. Well developed and practised, it's no surprise that "Stop The War" was recorded at The Power Station on May 5-6, 1982 (V2). An upbeat song about a failing relationship crippled by argument. The opening line of the song ("I pull you close but when we kiss girl I can feel a doubt") would later be found in "I'm Goin' Down".

A THOUSAND TEARS (WILLIAM DAVIS) - V1 uncirculating
A THOUSAND TEARS (WILLIAM DAVIS) - V2 uncirculating
WILLIAM DAVIS - V3 uncirculating
WILLIAM DAVIS - V4 uncirculating

Note: V1 of "A Thousand Tears (William Davis)" was recorded at Power Station on January 31, 1980, and V2 on February 1. Springsteen would return to the song two years later with V3, with the title shortened to "William Davis", which was recorded at Power Station on April 27, 1982, and V4 the next day April 28, during the early days of the Born In The U.S.A. sessions. No audio circulates of this song, even though it was recorded in both 1980 and 1982.

KING'S HIGHWAY - V1 uncirculating
KING'S HIGHWAY - V2 uncirculating

Note: V1 of "King's Highway" recorded on May 23, 1983, and the completed V2 on May 24. Included in the 1993 Tracks concept list, and also on a Tracks listing from November 1997, but failed to make the cut.

SAVIN' UP uncirculating

Note: Recorded at The Hit Factory on January 25 and/or February 23, 1982. Song considered for Gary U.S. Bonds but not used – donated in 1983 to Clarence Clemons & The Red Bank Rockers for their debut album.

OUT OF WORK uncirculating

Note: Recorded at The Hit Factory in January or February 1982. Probably the same core recording as found on the U.S. Bonds album (i.e. the E Street Band) – but with the Springsteen lead vocal.

HOLD ON (TO WHAT YOU GOT) uncirculating

Note: Recorded at The Hit Factory in January or February 1982. Probably the same core recording as found on the U.S. Bonds album (i.e. the E Street Band) – but with the Springsteen lead vocal.

LOVE'S ON THE LINE uncirculating

Note: Recorded at The Hit Factory in January or February 1982. Probably the same core recording as found on the U.S. Bonds album (i.e. the E Street Band) – but with the Springsteen lead vocal.

WORKIN' ON IT uncirculating

Note: Recorded at The Hit Factory on January 25, 1982. An uncirculated song from the same session that gave us "Cover Me" and the Gary U.S. Bonds tracks.

GUN IN EVERY HOME uncirculating

Note: Recorded at The Power Station on April 30 and May 6, 1982. Uncirculated song cut with the band during the so-called "Electric Nebraska Sessions".

COMMON GROUND (STAY HUNGRY) uncirculating

Note: Recorded at The Power Station on May 11, 1982. Uncirculated song cut with the band during the so-called "Electric Nebraska Sessions".

ON THE PROWL uncirculating

Note: Recorded at The Power Station on April 30, 1982. Bruce performed part of the song (mixing it into Little Richard's "Lucille") at a couple of guest appearances at the Stone Pony in August 1982. However the only known complete, stand-alone performance of the song (i.e. with all its verses) was during a guest appearance on October 3, 1982. Recorded prior to the live performances, not after, as previously thought.

SHUT DOWN uncirculating

Note: Recorded October 26, 1983.

100 MILES FROM JACKSON uncirculating

Note: Recorded October 26, 1983.

ROLL AWAY THE STONE uncirculating

Note: Recorded November 30, 1983.

SWOOP MAN uncirculating

Note: Recorded November 30, 1983.

UNDER THE BIG SKY uncirculating

Note: Recorded November 30, 1983. Springsteen may have returned to this song for Tracks, a song titled "Under A Big Sky" was recorded in April 1998.

REFRIGERATOR BLUES uncirculating

Note: Recorded on February 16, 1984.

IDA ROSE (NO ONE KNOWS) uncirculating

Note: Recorded on February 20, 1984. Included on a Tracks concept compilation in 1993.

NOW AND FOREVER - V1 uncirculating
SUMMER ON SIGNAL HILL - V2 uncirculating

Note: "Summer On Signal Hill" was recorded as an instrumental by Clarence Clemons & The Red Bank Rockers, at the Record Plant, New York, in 1983, the same sessions that produced "Savin' Up". Both tracks were produced by Bruce Springsteen, and released as a UK single, with "Summer On Signal Hill" the b-side. Springsteen's music publisher in Australia was accidentally sent the wrong information, so Clarence's instrumental was published and released there in 1983 as "Now And Forever", which was it's original title. It was composed by Springsteen, with lyrics, and played during band rehearsals in April 1982, at his home studio in Colts Neck, New Jersey. Bruce Springsteen and The E Street Band may have recorded it in the spring of 1983 at The Hit Factory in New York City, but it does not appear in Sony's database of Springsteen recording sessions. It was also recorded and released by Killer Joe on their 1991 album Scene Of The Crime. Moreover, Max Weinberg stated that "The E Street Band played the song but never recorded it." in the liner notes for Killer Joe's cover version.

Note: The timeline-focused, original presentation of these sessions can be found here.


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