Demo - Studio Sessions


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Table of Contents

Overview

April 1972 - June 1972

There is no doubt that 1972 was a massive songwriting period for Bruce. Although some have their genesis in 1971, Springsteen wrote most of the below-mentioned songs during 1972, prior to the January 1973 release of his debut album. The vast majority of the known recordings were made during a three-four month period, from May thru August 1972. However, a few were recorded shortly beforehand and several weren't recorded until early 1973. All but one feature Springsteen completely solo, on either acoustic guitar or keyboards. The one exception features an added, but barely discernible, bass guitar. From this large pool of recordings Appel-Cretecos selected and distributed some of them during 1973-74 - most notably to the UK – European based publisher Intersong Music Ltd. Some recordings were distributed on tape, others on acetates. Most of these acetates were manufactured at Media Sound in New York City and Angel Sound in Bedford, MA. However (and this has been the source of much confusion over the years) Springsteen did NOT record at either of these locations. Intersong also pressed its own acetates for distribution within the industry. This audio gradually filtered into collector circles in the late 1970s, often under the misnomer “the London Publishing Demos”.

The audio that has circulated to date was recorded at either: a) CBS Studios, b) Mediasound Studios at West 57th Street, New York City, c) 914 Sound Studios or d) Jim Cretecos’ apartment (not sure about this location - stories contradict each other). Interestingly neither the material recorded at CBS Studios (the so-called “Hammond tapes”) nor the material recorded in Jim Cretecos’ apartment (the so-called “Cretecos Tapes”) was ever sent to publishers. The Hammond tapes leaked out into collector circles hands in the 1970s via other sources. The Cretecos apartment tapes never circulated until the early 1990s, when Jimmy Cretecos sold his private audio collection (which also included recordings from both Mediasound Studios and 914 Sound Studios) to a third party – and it was this third party (JEC Music USA) that attempted to claim copyright of the material and to release it commercially. Springsteen took the matter to court in both the UK and USA – litigation that, all totalled, spanned nearly 7 years (1994 – 2001). In the end Bruce won both the UK and USA cases convincingly – however not before much of the material had leaked out on various unauthorized and/or bootleg CD releases.

Although the general time frame and sequencing of these 1972 demo-recording sessions has become clearer, much of the finer details (i.e., exact locations, dates and times for each recording) remain unclear. The full scope of Springsteen’s songwriting catalog that was actually committed to audio tape by Bruce during this period remains a mystery. As can be seen below, nearly half of the songs that Springsteen is believed to have written have yet to surface in any audio form.

Details

BABY DOLL 5:00 BTF / EY

Note: written in 1971 and performed by Bruce (on piano) to Mike Appel during their first meeting in November 1971 (that version was not recorded). This performance is on acoustic guitar. Recorded at Jim Cretecos’ apartment in New York City in April, 1972.

BORDER GUARD 6:13 BTF / UNE / EY

Note: Recorded at Jim Cretecos’ apartment in New York City in April, 1972.

CAMILLA HORN 1:03 BTF / UNE / PS / EY

Note: Recorded at Mediasound Studios in April-May, 1972

ELOISE 1:05 BTF / UNE / PS / EY

Note: Recorded at Mediasound Studios in April-May, 1972. Utilises the melody of "Growin' Up". Very short, and the recording is likely to be only the first verse of a potentially longer song.

FAMILY SONG - V1 5:40 US1
FAMILY SONG - V2 5:03 BTF / UNE / PS / EY

Note: Also known by the titles "California" or "California, You’re A Woman". Both V1 and V2 likely recorded at Mediasound Studios in April/May, 1972. The V1 take (which is definitely from Pocketful Studios as the control room engineer is heard giving Bruce a directive to begin) is delivered at a slower pace and is slightly off-key. V2 is likely a second take and is the superior performance.

HENRY BOY 3:13 US4 / DT / EY / CHAPTER

Note: Recorded at Mediasound Studios in June 1972 and officially released on September 23, 2016 on Chapter and Verse, the companion album to Springsteen's autobiography Born To Run. Dated only as "June 1972" in the liner notes, suggesting the studio logs from the time are not complete. A video recording of a solo performance from August 1972 at Max’s Kansas City is in circulation.

HOLLYWOOD KIDS 2:28 BTF / UNE / EY

Note: Likely recorded at Jim Cretecos’ apartment in New York City in April, 1972.

IF I WAS THE PRIEST - V1 5:53 US1
IF I WAS THE PRIEST - V2 5:13 US3 / HDT
IF I WAS THE PRIEST - V3 5:33 BTF / US4 / DT / EY

Note: V1 probably recorded at Mike Appel's office, New York in April 1972. V2 recorded at CBS Studios on May 3, 1972. V3 likely recorded at Mediasound Studio in May-June, 1972. All three feature Bruce on piano. V1 is performed at a slower pace and is not as polished as V2 or V3. According to comments by Bruce this was written in late 1970 or early 1971. Performed live at The Student Prince in the fall of 1971 and then (acoustically) on May 2, 1972 in John Hammond’s office. Neither of those performances are circulating.

JESSE 3:05 BTF / UNE / PS / EY

Note: Likely recorded at Jim Cretecos’ apartment in New York City in April 1972, although this is possibly from Pocketful Of Tunes Studios in May-June.

MARIE 4:44 BTF / UNE / PS / EY

Note: Recorded at Mediasound Studios, New York, NY in April-May, 1972.

NO NEED 6:04 US4 / EY

Note: Likely recorded at Mediasound Studios, New York in June/July of 1972. Bruce on piano. This is one of the masters purchased by JEC Music USA, registered by them at the Library Of Congress, but never issued on any of JEC’s associated CD releases (Prodigal Son – Unearthed - Before The Fame). Collectors will have to make do with the same (but lesser sound quality) recording found on US4.

PRODIGAL SON 7:08 BTF / UNE / PS / EY

Note: Likely recorded at Jim Cretecos’ apartment in New York City in April, 1972. One of Bruce’s major works from the period.

RANDOLPH STREET 3:52 BTF / UNE / PS / EY

Note: Recorded at Jim Cretecos’ apartment in New York City in April of 1972. Written in 1971, maybe even earlier. About as autobiographical as anything Bruce has ever written.

SHE'S LEAVING - V1 2:14 US4 / DT
SHE'S LEAVING - V2 5:10 US4 / EY

Note: V1 and V2 both recorded at Mediasound Studios in May-June, 1972. V1 is an abandoned (incomplete) take, with Bruce forgetting the words. V2 is complete. Written in 1971 and performed with The Bruce Springsteen Band in late 1971 and early 1972. A full band live performance from late 1971 is circulating.

SOUTHERN SUN - V1 3:54 US3 / HDT / FOFC
SOUTHERN SUN - V2 4:15 BTF / UNE / US4 / DT

Note: V1 recorded at CBS Studios, New York, NY on May 3, 1972. V2 recorded at Pocketful Of Tunes Studios, New York, NY in May-June, 1972. Original Sioux City Music documentation has the song titled as “Southern Sun”, but it was copyrighted under the incorrect title "Southern Son" by JEC Music USA in 1995. Springsteen subsequently registered it as "Southern SUN" in 1999. Springsteen has clearly written "sun" on a handwritten setlist from the period, and the lyrics "it's a southern sun that shines down on this Yankee boy" clearly indicate it should be "Sun".

THE WORD - V1 3:44 DT / EY
THE SONG - V2 - take 1 private cdr

Note: Recorded at Mediasound Studios, New York in May-June, 1972. Historically this has been listed under the title "The Word" or "I Heard The Word". However a perfect sound quality tape of this performance exists in limited collector circles and it includes the previously unheard introduction ("The Song, take 1") – indicating the correct title is "The Song". However, "I Heard The Word" can be found on a list of possible album tracks, dated around August 1972.

WAR NURSE 2:05 BTF / UNE / PS / EY

Note: Likely Recorded at Jim Cretecos’ apartment in New York City in April, 1972.

Timeline

TIMELINE: Springsteen signed Exclusive Recording and Exclusive Management Agreements with Laurel Canyon (Mike Appel and Jim Cretecos) in mid-March, 1972. However Springsteen did not sign any Songwriting Agreement at this time, apparently wishing to think this matter over a bit longer. During April Springsteen traveled to New York on occasions to visit Mike Appel at the publishing company Pocketful Of Tunes, where Mike Appel was then employed. During April some spontaneous, “off-the-cuff” Springsteen performances were recorded in a songwriting room (not the studio) at Pocketful Of Tunes. To date, only a couple of these demos have surfaced. There may have been other songs (titles unknown) similarly taped that have yet to circulate.

Probably recorded at Mike Appel’s office or home, New York, NY during April, 1972
IF I WAS THE PRIEST - V1 5:53 U1
ARABIAN NIGHTS - V1 5:25 U1 / ESRR
LADY AND THE DOCTOR - V1 3:22 U4

Note: the U1 and U4 recordings are from a downstream generation source and un-enhanced - and therefore of reduced sound quality. ESRR is somewhat improved, but is snipped at the end.


TIMELINE: Further demos were recorded over multiple sessions at the apartment of Bruce’s co-manager Jim Cretecos. Cretecos was an electronics engineer and was able to emulate a reasonable recording environment in his apartment – so much so that it is difficult to distinguish some of the recordings Bruce made in Cretecos’ apartment from those made in a professional studio.

Recorded at Jim Cretecos’ apartment, New York, NY during April, 1972. Produced by Jim Cretecos. Recording Engineer: Jim Cretecos.
RANDOLPH STREET 3:52 BTF / UNE / PS / EY
WAR NURSE 2:05 BTF / UNE / PS / EY
JESSE 3:05 BTF / UNE / PS / EY
PRODIGAL SON 7:08 BTF / UNE / PS / EY
BORDER GUARD 6:13 BTF / UNE
HOLLYWOOD KIDS 2:28 BTF / UNE
BABY DOLL 5:00 BTF

Note: all the “BTF-UNE-PS-EY” recordings are professionally transferred from a copy of the master tape and have been further improved by modern technology.


TIMELINE: In late April 1972 Mike Appel was able to procure a May 2 meeting with CBS A&R Manager John Hammond so that Hammond could meet and listen to Bruce. Hammond loved what he heard and Springsteen’s first studio demo session took place at CBS Studios the following day (the so-called “John Hammond Demo Session”). Fourteen recordings were made of twelve different songs; two performed twice. Session log information survives so it has been verified that these recordings encompass the complete session. John Hammond was prepared to sign Bruce on the spot on May 3. But administrative formalities within CBS meant that it would take several weeks for that to become reality. Mike Appel sent cassette copies of some (not all) of this May 3 material to several record company executives during May in an attempt to create a bidding war for Springsteen’s services. However, none of the other companies were interested in Bruce.

Recorded at CBS Studios, New York, NY on May 3, 1972. Produced by John Hammond. Recording Engineer: Phil Giambalvo
MARY QUEEN OF ARKANSAS - V1 1:15 HDT
MARY QUEEN OF ARKANSAS - V2 4:18 U3 / HDT / TRACKS
GROWIN' UP 2:35 U3 / HDT / TRACKS
DOES THIS BUS STOP AT 82ND STREET? 1:55 U3 / HDT / TRACKS
IT'S HARD TO BE A SAINT IN THE CITY 2:48 U3 / HDT / TRACKS
THE ANGEL 3:37 U3 / HDT
ARABIAN NIGHTS 5:05 U3
JAZZ MUSICIAN - V1 4:55 HDT
JAZZ MUSICIAN - V2 5:18 U3 / HDT
IF I WAS THE PRIEST 5:13 U3 / HDT
TWO HEARTS IN TRUE WALTZ TIME 3:31 U3 / HDT
STREET QUEEN - V1 3:49 U3 / HDT
SOUTHERN SUN - V1 3:54 U3 / HDT
COWBOYS OF THE SEA - V1 4:38 U3 / HDT

Note: all Tracks recordings are professionally transferred from the master tape. The U3 and HDT recordings are each from different, downstream generation sources and of significantly reduced sound quality, particularly HDT audio.


TIMELINE: A week or so following this May 3 John Hammond demo session Springsteen finally signed his “Exclusive Songwriting Agreement” with publisher Sioux City Music (Appel & Cretecos). It was following the signing of this Agreement that Springsteen began a series of May-June demo sessions for Sioux City Music at Wes Farrell’s Pocketful Of Sounds Studios (where Appel was still employed). Despite this timeline it appears that some of these recordings may have been cut in April 1972.

Recorded at Mediasound Studios, New York, NY during April-July, 1972. Produced by Mike Appel and Jim Cretecos. Recording Engineer: Jim Cretecos.
FAMILY SONG - V1 5:43 U1
FAMILY SONG - V2 5:03 BTF / UNE / PS / EY
CAMILLA HORN 1:03 BTF / UNE / PS / EY
ELOISE 1:05 BTF / UNE / PS / EY
MARIE 4:44 BTF / UNE / PS / EY
SOUTHERN SUN 4:15 BTF / UNE / U4 / DT
IF I WAS THE PRIEST 5:33 BTF / U4 / DT
SHE'S LEAVING - V1 2:14 U4 / DT
SHE'S LEAVING - V2 5:10 U4
THE SONG 3:44 DT / private cdr
JAZZ MUSICIAN 6:03 U4
IT'S HARD TO BE A SAINT IN THE CITY 2:38 U4
COWBOYS OF THE SEA 4:15 DT / private cdr
HENRY BOY 3:13 U4 / DT / CHAPTER
NO NEED 6:04 U4

Note: all the BTF or UNE or PS or EY recordings are professionally transferred from a copy of the master tape and professionally enhanced. All U1 or U4 or DT recordings are from a downstream generation source and of reduced sound quality. Master tape quality versions of both "The Song" and "Cowboys Of The Sea" from this session are in very limited circulation in collector circles. The list above is in approximate chronological order.


TIMELINE: Laurel Canyon Productions (Appel & Cretecos) finally signed a recording contract with CBS (“the CBS Agreement”) on June 9, 1972. Bruce was not signed directly to CBS - his services were subcontracted to CBS by Laurel Canyon. The recording sessions for Springsteen’s debut LP took place at 914 Sound Studios from early June thru late October. Individual recordings made by Springsteen under the CBS Agreement remained the property of Laurel Canyon until such point that they were assigned and delivered (transferred) to CBS. Since Laurel Canyon owned the un-assigned recordings some of them ended up serving as copyright/publishing demos for Laurel Canyon. Since this group of 914 Sound Studio material emanates from sessions intended to produce an album, they can be categorized as both Greetings album outtakes AND publishing demos.

Recorded at 914 Sound Studio, Blauvelt, NY during June 1972. Produced by Mike Appel and Jim Cretecos. Recording Engineer: Pete Weiss.
TWO HEARTS IN TRUE WALTZ TIME 3:40 BTF
COWBOYS OF THE SEA 4:13 BTF / U4
ARABIAN NIGHTS 5:54 BTF / UNE / PS / EY / DT
JAZZ MUSICIAN 6:08 BTF / UNE / PS / EY
LADY AND THE DOCTOR 4:12 BTF / UNE / PS / EY
VISITATION AT FORT HORN 7:50 BTF / UNE / PS / EY
STREET QUEEN - V2 3:52 DT / MT1

Note: all BTF or UNE or PS or EY recordings are professionally transferred from a copy of the master tape that has been enhanced. The DT and U4 recordings are from a downstream generation source, un-enhanced and therefore of reduced sound quality. Since the above-mentioned six recordings appear to have been made during the sessions for the Greetings LP they are also listed in the Greetings LP sessions section. While the "house" engineer at 914 was Louis Lahav, this particular session was engineered by Pete Weiss.


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